Grading of hydronephrosis: an ongoing challenge
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CitationÖnen, A. (2020). Grading of hydronephrosis: an ongoing challenge. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 8, 1-13.
The crucial point for prompt diagnostics, ideal therapeutic approach, and follow-up of hydronephrosis associated with UPJ anomalies in children is the severity of hydronephrosis. Such many hydronephrosis grading systems as AP diameter, SFU, radiology, UTD, and Onen have been developed to evaluate hydronephrosis severity in infants. Unfortunately, it is still an ongoing challenge and there is no consensus between different disciplines. AP diameter is a very dynamic parameter and is affected by many factors (hydration, bladder filling, position, respiration). More importantly, its measurement is very variable and misleading due to different renal pelvic configurations. The radiology grading system has the same grades 1, 2, and 3 as the SFU grading system with addition of the AP diameter for the first 3 grades. This grading system divides parenchymal loss into two different grades. Grade 4 represents mild parenchymal loss while grade 5 suggests severe parenchymal loss. However, it is operator dependent, is not decisive, and does not differentiate grades 4 and 5 clearly. All grades of SFU are very variable between operators and clinicians. UTD classification aims to put all significant abnormal urinary findings together including the kidney, ureter, and bladder and thus determines the risk level for infants with any urinary disease. Different renal deterioration risks occur depending on the mechanism of hydronephrosis. Therefore, SFU and UTD classification may result in significant confusion and misleading in determining the severity of hydronephrosis. SFU-4 and UTD-P3 represent a considerable range of severity of hydronephrosis. Both represent minimal thinning of the medullary parenchyma and severe thinning of the cortical parenchyma (cyst-like hydronephrotic kidneys) at the same grade. The wide definition of SFU-4 and UTD-P3 fails to indicate accurately the severity of hydronephrosis and thus significantly misleads from a prompt treatment. They do not suggest who need surgical treatment and who can safely be followed non-operatively. The anatomy and physiology of the 4 suborgans of the kidney (renal pelvis, calices, medulla, and cortex) are completely different from each other. Therefore, each part of the kidney affect and behave differently as a response to UPJ-type hydronephrosis (UPJHN) depending on the severity of hydronephrosis. The upgraded Onen hydronephrosis grading system has been developed based on this basic evidence both for prenatal and post-natal periods. The Onen grading system determines specific detailed findings of significant renal damage, which clearly show and suggest who can safely be followed conservatively from who will need surgical intervention for UPJHN. Neither AP diameter nor radiology, SFU, or UTD classification is the gold standard in determining the severity of hydronephrosis. All these grading systems are based on subjective parameters and are affected by many factors. They do not determine the exact severity of UPJHN and thus cause permanent renal damage due to a delay in surgical decision in some infants while they may cause an unnecessary surgery in others. The Onen grading system has resolved all disadvantages of other grading systems and promises a safer follow-up and a prompt treatment for UPJHN. It is an accurate and easily reproducible grading that has high sensitivity and specificity. © Copyright © 2020 Onen.
SourceFrontiers in Pediatrics